Unemployment in India

The unemployment rate in India jumped to 29% since the country went into lockdown from March 2020, says the report of CMIE – Centre For Monitoring Indian Economy. The lockdown to contain the coronavirus outbreak has forced many industries to shut down thus increasing unemployment across the country.

The unemployment rate in India rose to 7.2 percent in February 2019, the highest since September 2016, and also up from 5.9 percent in February 2018, according to the latest data compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).

What is Unemployment?

Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most frequent measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed people divided by the number of people in the labor force.

National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) defines employment and unemployment on the following activity statuses of an individual:

  • Working (engaged in an economic activity) i.e. ‘Employed’.
  • Seeking or available for work i.e. ‘Unemployed’.
  • Neither seeking nor available for work.

The first two constitutes labour force and unemployment rate is the percent of the labour force that is without work.

Unemployment rate = (Unemployed Workers / Total labour force) × 100

Types of Unemployment in India

  • Disguised Unemployment:
    • It is a phenomenon wherein more people are employed than actually needed.
    • It is primarily traced in the agricultural and the unorganised sectors of India.
  • Seasonal Unemployment:
    • It is an unemployment that occurs during certain seasons of the year.
    • Agricultural labourers in India rarely have work throughout the year.
  • Structural Unemployment:
    • It is a category of unemployment arising from the mismatch between the jobs available in the market and the skills of the available workers in the market.
    • Many people in India do not get job due to lack of requisite skills and due to poor education level, it becomes difficult to train them.
  • Cyclical Unemployment:
    • It is result of the business cycle, where unemployment rises during recessions and declines with economic growth.
    • Cyclical unemployment figures in India are negligible. It is a phenomenon that is mostly found in capitalist economies.
  • Technological Unemployment:
    • It is loss of jobs due to changes in technology.
    • In 2016, World Bank data predicted that the proportion of jobs threatened by automation in India is 69% year-on-year.
  • Frictional Unemployment:
    • The Frictional Unemployment also called as Search Unemployment, refers to the time lag between the jobs when an individual is searching for a new job or is switching between the jobs.
    • In other words, an employee requires time for searching a new job or shifting from the existing to a new job, this inevitable time delay causes the frictional unemployment. It is often considered as a voluntary unemployment because it is not caused due to the shortage of job, but in fact, the workers themselves quit their jobs in search of better opportunities.
  • Vulnerable Employment:
    • This means, people working informally, without proper job contracts and thus sans any legal protection. These persons are deemed ‘unemployed’ since records of their work are never maintained.
    • It is one of the main types of unemployment in India.

Related Terms

  • Unemployment trap is a situation when unemployment benefits discourage the unemployed to go to work. People find the opportunity cost of going to work too high when one can simply enjoy the benefits by doing nothing.
    • Description: While the purpose of social security and welfare systems is to provide relief to the unemployed, they end up providing them with an incentive not to return to work. An unemployment trap arises when opportunity cost of going to work is higher than the income received, discouraging people from returning to work and being productive.
  • Harmonised unemployment rates define the unemployed as people of working age who are without work, are available for work, and have taken specific steps to find work. The uniform application of this definition results in estimates of unemployment rates that are more internationally comparable than estimates based on national definitions of unemployment.
    • This indicator is measured in numbers of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force and it is seasonally adjusted. The labour force is defined as the total number of unemployed people plus those in civilian employment.

Measurement of Unemployment in India

National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), an organization under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) measures unemployment in India on following approaches:

  • Usual Status Approach: This approach estimates only those persons as unemployed who had no gainful work for a major time during the 365 days preceding the date of survey.
  • Weekly Status Approach: This approach records only those persons as unemployed who did not have gainful work even for an hour on any day of the week preceding the date of survey.
  • Daily Status Approach: Under this approach, unemployment status of a person is measured for each day in a reference week. A person having no gainful work even for 1 hour in a day is described as unemployed for that day.

Unemployment stats (based on findings from CMIE’s latest data):

  • The unemployment rate in India rose to 7.2 percent in February 2019, the highest since September 2016, and up from 5.9 percent in February 2018.
  • The total number of employed persons in February 2019 is estimated at 400 million against 406 million in the year-ago period and 407.5 million employed in February 2017.
  • The labour participation rate fell from 43.2% in January 2019 to 42.7% in February 2019.
    • Labour Participation Rate defines that section of working population in the economy which is currently employed or seeking employment.

Causes of Unemployment

  • Large population.
  • Low or no educational levels and vocational skills of working population.
  • Inadequate state support, legal complexities and low infrastructural, financial and market linkages to small/ cottage industries or small businesses, making such enterprises unviable with cost and compliance overruns.
  • Huge workforce associated with informal sector due to lack of required education/ skills, which is not captured in any employment data. For ex: domestic helpers, construction workers etc.
  • The syllabus taught in schools and colleges, being not as per the current requirements of the industries. This is the main cause of structural unemployment.
  • Inadequate growth of infrastructure and low investments in manufacturing sector, hence restricting employment potential of secondary sector.
  • Low productivity in agriculture sector combined with lack of alternative opportunities for agricultural worker which makes transition from primary to secondary and tertiary sectors difficult.
  • Regressive social norms that deter women from taking/continuing employment.

Impact

  • The problem of unemployment gives rise to the problem of poverty.
  • Young people after a long time of unemployment indulge in illegal and wrong activities for earning money. This also leads to increase in crime in the country.
  • Unemployed persons can easily be enticed by antisocial elements. This makes them lose faith in democratic values of the country.
  • It is often seen that unemployed people end up getting addicted to drugs and alcohol or attempts suicide, leading losses to the human resources of the country.
  • It also affects economy of the country as the workforce that could have been gainfully employed to generate resources actually gets dependent on the remaining working population, thus escalating socioeconomic costs for the State. For instance, 1 percent increase in unemployment reduces the GDP by 2 percent

Steps Taken by Government

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was launched in 1980 to create full employment opportunities in rural areas.
  • Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM): This scheme was started in 1979 with objective to help unemployed rural youth between the age of 18 and 35 years to acquire skills for self-employment. Priority was given to SC/ST Youth and Women.
  • RSETI/RUDSETI: With the aim of mitigating the unemployment problem among the youth, a new initiative was tried jointly by Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Educational Trust, Syndicate Bank and Canara Bank in 1982 which was the setting up of the “RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND SELF EMPLOYMENT TRAINING INSTITUTE” with its acronym RUDSETI near Dharmasthala in Karnataka. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes/ RSETIs are now managed by Banks with active co-operation from the Government of India and State Government.
  • By merging the two erstwhile wage employment programme – National Rural Employment programme (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) was started with effect from April, 1, 1989 on 80:20 cost sharing basis between the centre and the States.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA):
    • It is an employment scheme that was launched in 2005 to provide social security by guaranteeing a minimum of 100 days paid work per year to all the families whose adult members opt for unskilled labour-intensive work.
    • This act provides Right to Work to people.
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), launched in 2015 has an objective of enabling a large number of Indian youth to take up industry-relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood.
  • Start Up India Scheme, launched in 2016 aims at developing an ecosystem that promotes and nurtures entrepreneurship across the country.
  • Stand Up India Scheme, launched in 2016 aims to facilitate bank loans between Rs 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore to at least one SC or ST borrower and at least one women borrower per bank branch for setting up a greenfield enterprise.

Way Forward

  • There are number of labour intensive manufacturing sectors in India such as food processing, leather and footwear, wood manufacturers and furniture, textiles and apparel and garments. Special packages, individually designed for each industry are needed to create jobs.
  • Public investment in sectors like health, education, police and judiciary can create many government jobs.
  • Decentralisation of Industrial activities is necessary so that people of every region get employment.
  • Development of the rural areas will help mitigate the migration of the rural people to the urban areas thus decreasing the pressure on the urban area jobs.
  • Entrepreneurs generate employments to many in a country; therefore government needs to encourage entrepreneurship among the youth.
  • Concrete measures aimed at removing the social barriers for women’s entry and their continuous participation in the job market is needed.
  • Government needs to keep a strict watch on the education system and should try to implement new ways to generate skilled labour force.
  • Effective implementation of present programs like Make in India, Skill India, Start up and Stand-Up India.
  • There is a need for National Employment Policy (NEP) that would encompass a set of multidimensional interventions covering a whole range of social and economic issues affecting many policy spheres and not just the areas of labour and employment. The policy would be a critical tool to contribute significantly to achieve the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • The underlying principles for the National Employment Policy may include
    • enhancing human capital through skill development;
    • creating sufficient number of decent quality jobs for all citizens in the formal and informal sectors to absorb those who are available and willing to work;
    • strengthening social cohesion and equity in the labour market;
    • coherence and convergence in various initiatives taken by the government;
    • supporting the private sector to become the major investor in productive enterprises;
    • supporting self-employed persons by strengthening their capabilities to improve their earnings;
    • ensuring employees’ basic rights and developing an education training and skill development system aligned with the changing requirements of the labour market.

The future of Machine Learning

Machine learning is a trendy topic in this age of Artificial Intelligence. The fields of computer vision and Natural Language Processing (NLP) are making breakthroughs that no one could’ve predicted. We see both of them in our lives more and more, facial recognition in your smartphones, language translation software, self-driving cars and so on. What might seem sci-fi is becoming a reality, and it is only a matter of time before we attain Artificial General Intelligence.

In this article, I will be covering Jeff Dean’s keynote on the advancements of computer vision and language models and how ML will progress towards the future from the perspective of model building.

The field of Machine learning is experiencing exponential growth today, especially in the subject of computer vision. Today, the error rate in humans is only 3% in computer vision. This means computers are already better at recognizing and analyzing images than humans. What an amazing feat! Decades ago, computers were hunks of machinery the size of a room; today, they can perceive the world around us in ways that we never thought possible.

The progress we’ve made from 26% error in 2011 to 3% error in 2016 is hugely impactful. The way I like to think is, computers have now evolved eyes that work. — Jeff Dean

Now this achievement — made possible with advancements in machine learning — isn’t just a celebration for computer geeks and AI experts, it has real-world applications that save lives and make the world a better place. Before I blab about a life-saving application of computer vision, let me illustrate to you the power of computer vision.

Let’s say I give you 10,000 pictures of dogs and I ask you to classify them into their respective species, are you able to do that? Well, you can, but you have to be a dog expert and it’ll take days by the time you’re done. But for a computer (with a GPU), this takes mere minutes. This incredible capability of computer vision opens up a profusion of applications.

Application of computer vision

One quintessential application for computer vision given by Jeff Dean is in diabetic retinopathy — which is a diabetes complication that affects the eye. Now to diagnose it, an extensive eye exam is required. In third-world countries and rural villages where there is a paucity of doctors, a machine learning model that uses computer vision to make a diagnosis will be extremely beneficial. As with all medical imaging fields, this computer vision can also be a second opinion for the domain experts, ensuring the credibility of their diagnosis. Generally, the purpose of computer vision in the medical field is to replicate the expertise of specialists and deploy it in places where people need it the most.


NLP and Transformers

Image for post

 Language models are algorithms that help machines understand the text and perform all kinds of operations such as translating text. According to Jeff Dean, a lot of progress has been made in language models.

Today, computers can understand paragraphs of text at a much deeper level than they could before. Even though they aren’t at the level of reading an entire book and understanding it the way we humans do, the ability to understand a few paragraphs of text is fundamental to things such as improving the Google search system.

The BERT model, the latest Natural Language Processing (NLP) model that Google announced has been put to use in their search ranking algorithms, This helped enhance the search results for myriads of different kinds of queries that were previously very difficult. In other words, the search system can now better understand different kinds of searches done by users and help provide better and more accurate answers.

“Deep learning and machine learning architectures are going to change a lot in the next few years. You can see a lot of this already, where now with NLP, the only game in town basically is Transformer networks,” — Yann LeCun

These Transformer-based models for translation are showing spectacular gains in the BLEU score, which is a measurement of translation quality. So, Machine Learning architectures that utilize transformers such as BERT are increasing in popularity and functionality.


The problem with ML today

In the keynote, the Google Senior Fellow mentioned atomic models that Machine Learning developers use today to perform all kinds of unit tasks. He believes these models are inefficient and computationally expensive, and more effort is required to achieve good results in those tasks.

To elaborate, in the ML world today, experts find a problem that they want to solve and they focus on finding the right dataset to train the model and perform that particular task. Dean argues that by doing so, they basically start from zero — they initialize the parameter of the model with random floating points and then try to learn about everything that tasks from the dataset.

To elaborate on this matter, he gives an excellent comparison that goes like this:

“It’s akin to when you want to learn something new, you forget all your education and you go back to being an infant, and now you try to learn everything about this task”

He compares this methodology with humans becoming infants every time we want to learn something new and taking a brain out and putting in a different one in. Not only is this method computationally expensive, but more effort is also required to achieve good outcomes in those tasks. And Jeff Dean proposes a solution.

Epitome

Computer vision and NLP will continue to play a significant role in our lives. But there are adverse implications to this advancement as well, such as China using facial recognition to implement a rating system on the people (straight out of an episode from the TV show black mirror) and the proliferation of fake news. We must progress in Machine Learning while taking into account of algorithmic biases and ethics that remind us of our place, a creation of God and not creators.

As for the uber model, there is much evidence proving we are inching closer and closer towards it. For example, transfer learning — a way of reusing the model for a different purpose achieves good results with fewer data and multi-task learning — a model that operates at small scales of five or six related things all tend to make things work well.

Thus, it’s logical to say that the realization of an uber model is plausible by extending those ideas — transfer learning and multi-task learning — out and developing on them, it’s only a matter of when and not how.

Thanks for reading my excerpt on the future of ML and my synopsis of Jeff Dean’s keynote. I hope you got a glimpse of what is to come in Machine Learning and AI.

Beauty

One of the most unsparing habits of the human being is judging a person on the virtue of their looks that includes: complexion shade, height, figure, hair, etc. This ritual has been in the culture of all the individuals around the globe and has been followed through ages. Kings prefer attractive women; his ministry will be filled with people shorter than him. In present, it is an outrageous idea of degrading individuals on their looks. A person facing it may not be able to walk out from self-guilt. The idea of beauty is sprayed on the public by fraudulent cosmetics companies. We can take an example of Kylie Jenner who is a media personality and owns Kylie Cosmetics. She has prompted the idea to her customers that they can get looks like her if they use products from her brand. A tall man will always be held to be a leader, or an attractive woman will always be soft-spoken. We need to change this thinking pattern otherwise a lot of high potential souls will go wasted. In this 21century, spoke persons do outline the issue in a vilified manner. In the end, I would like to quote “No beauty shines brighter than a good heart”, by anonymous.One of the most unsparing habits of the human being is judging a person on the virtue of their looks that includes: complexion shade, height, figure, hair, etc. This ritual has been in the culture of all the individuals around the globe and has been followed through ages. Kings prefer attractive women; his ministry will be filled with people shorter than him. In present, it is an outrageous idea of degrading individuals on their looks. A person facing it may not be able to walk out from self-guilt. The idea of beauty is sprayed on the public by fraudulent cosmetics companies. We can take an example of Kylie Jenner who is a media personality and owns Kylie Cosmetics. She has prompted the idea to her customers that they can get looks like her if they use products from her brand. A tall man will always be held to be a leader, or an attractive woman will always be soft-spoken. We need to change this thinking pattern otherwise a lot of high potential souls will go wasted. In this 21century, spoke persons do outline the issue in a vilified manner. In the end, I would like to quote “No beauty shines brighter than a good heart”, by anonymous.

Bullying

Bullying is repeated aggressive behavior that can be physical, verbal, or relational, in-person or online. Bullies are often relentless, bullying over and over again for long periods of time. You may live in constant fear of where and when the bully will strike next, what they’ll do, and how far they’ll go.

Physical bullying – includes hitting, kicking, or pushing you (or even just threatening to do so), as well as stealing, hiding, or ruining your things, and hazing, harassment, or humiliation.

Verbal bullying – includes name-calling, teasing, taunting, insulting, or otherwise verbally abusing you.

Relationship bullying – includes refusing to talk to you, excluding you from groups or activities, spreading lies or rumors about you, making you do things you don’t want to do.

Boys frequently bully using physical threats and actions, while girls are more likely to engage in verbal or relationship bullying. But no type of bullying should ever be tolerated.

Cyber bullying:– Technology means that bullying is no longer limited to schoolyards or street corners. Cyberbullying can occur anywhere, even at home, via smartphones, emails, texts, and social media, 24 hours a day, with potentially hundreds of people involved. Cyberbullies use digital technology to harass, threaten, or humiliate you. Unlike traditional bullying, cyberbullying doesn’t require face-to-face contact and isn’t limited to just a handful of witnesses at a time. It also doesn’t require physical power or strength in numbers.

Cyberbullies come in all shapes and sizes—almost anyone with an Internet connection or mobile phone can cyberbully someone else, often without having to reveal their true identity.

Cyberbullies can torment you 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and the bullying can follow you anywhere so that no place, not even home, ever feels safe. And with a few clicks the humiliation can be witnessed by hundreds or even thousands of people online.

The methods kids and teens use to cyberbully can be as varied and imaginative as the technology they have access to. they might range from sending threatening or taunting messages via email, text, social media, or IM, to breaking into your email account or stealing your online identity to hurt and humiliate you. Some cyberbullies may even create a website or social media page to target you

Being bullied can leave you feeling helpless, humiliated, depressed, or even suicidal. But there are ways to protect yourself — at school and online—and deal with a bully.

While there are many reasons why bullies may be targeting you, bullies tend to pick on people who are “different” or don’t fit in with the mainstream. While your individualism is something that you will celebrate later in life, it can seem like a curse when you’re young and trying to fit in. Perhaps you dress or act differently, or maybe your race, religion, or sexual orientation sets you apart. It may simply be that you’re new to the school or neighborhood and haven’t made friends yet.

Other reasons why kids bully:

  • To make themselves popular or to gain attention.
  • Because they’re jealous of you.
  • To look tough or feel powerful.
  • Because they’re being bullied themselves.
  • To escape their own problems.

Whatever the reasons for you being targeted, it’s important to remember that you’re not alone. Many of us have been bullied at some point in our lives

There is no simple solution to bullying or cyberbullying, or a foolproof way to handle a bully. But since bullying or cyberbullying is rarely limited to one or two incidents—it’s far more likely to be a sustained attack over a period of time—like the bully, you may have to be relentless in reporting each and every bullying incident until it stops. Remember: there is no reason for you to ever put up with any kind of bullying.

Don’t blame yourself. It is not your fault. No matter what a bully says or does, you should not be ashamed of who you are or what you feel. The bully is the person with the problem, not you.

Try to view bullying from a different perspective. The bully is an unhappy, frustrated person who wants to have control over your feelings so that you feel as badly as they do. Don’t give them the satisfaction.

Don’t beat yourself up. Don’t make a bullying incident worse by dwelling on it or reading cyberbullying messages over and over. Instead, delete any messages and focus on the positive experiences in your life. There are many wonderful things about you so be proud of who you are.

Spend time doing things you enjoy. The more time you spend with activities that bring you pleasure—sports, hobbies, hanging out with friends who don’t participate in bullying, for example—the less significance bullying or cyberbullying will have on your life.

Learn to manage stress. Finding healthy ways to relive the stress generated by bullying can make you more resilient so you won’t feel overwhelmed by negative experiences. Exercise, meditation, positive self-talk, muscle relaxation, and breathing exercises are all good ways to cope with the stress of bullying.

When you’re being bullied, having trusted people you can turn to for encouragement and support will ease your stress and boost your self-esteem and resilience. Talk to a parent, teacher, counselor, or other trusted adult—it doesn’t mean that you’re weak or there’s something wrong with you. And reach out to connect with real friends (those who don’t participate in any kind of bullying). If you’re new to a school or neighborhood, or don’t feel that you have anyone to turn to, there are lots of ways to make new friends. It may not always seem like it, but there are plenty of people who will love and appreciate you for who you are.

Unplug from technology. taking a break from your smartphone, computer, tablet, and video games can open you up to meeting new people.

Find others who share your same values and interests. You may be able to make friends at a youth group, book club, or religious organization. Learn a new sport, join a team, or take up a new hobby such as chess, art, or music. Or volunteer your time –helping others is a great way to feel better about yourself and expand your social network.

Share your feelings about bullying.Talk to a parent, counselor, coach, religious leader, or trusted friend. Expressing what you’re going through can make a huge difference in the way you feel, even if it doesn’t change the situation.

Boost your confidence. Exercise is a great way to boost your self-esteem and reduce stress. Go for a run or take a kick boxing class to work off your anger in a healthy way

Tips for dealing with cyberbullying—-

Dealing with cyberbullying is rarely easy, but there are steps you can take to cope with the problem. To start, it may be a good time to reassess your technology use. Spending less time on social media, or checking texts and emails, for example, and more time interacting with real people, can help you distance yourself from online bullies. It can also help to reduce anxiety, depression, and feelings of loneliness.

As well as seeking support, managing stress, and spending time with people and activities that bring you pleasure, the following tips can help:

Don’t respond to any messages or posts written about you, no matter how hurtful or untrue. Responding will only make the situation worse and provoking a reaction from you is exactly what the cyberbullies want, so don’t give them the satisfaction.

Don’t seek revenge on a cyberbully by becoming a cyberbully yourself. Again, it will only make the problem worse and could result in serious legal consequences for you. If you wouldn’t say it in person, don’t say it online.

Save the evidence of the cyberbullying,keep abusive text messages or a screenshot of a webpage, for example, and then report them to a trusted adult. If you don’t report incidents, the cyberbully will often become more aggressive.

Report threats of harm and inappropriate sexual messages to the police. In many cases, the cyberbully’s actions can be prosecuted by law.

Prevent communication from the cyberbully, by blocking their email address, cell phone number, and deleting them from social media contacts. Report their activities to their Internet service provider (ISP) or to any social media or other websites they use to target you. The cyberbully’s actions may constitute a violation of the website’s terms of service or, depending on the laws in your area, may even warrant criminal charges

EXPECTATIONS FROM AN ONLINE PLATFORM TO STUDY

STUDY

IDEAL ONLINE PLATFORM-

Though it depends on who you prefer to learn from and what you want to learn from your online course. Some of the must have features your online platform should have been-

  1. Easy to use software
  2. More emphasis on live sessions rather than recorded classes to clear your doubts then and there.
  3. Instant messages and doubt clearing capability.
  4. Online quizzes.
  5. Professional instructors.
  6. Grading/generates reports and analytics
  7. Assignment submission.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES WHICH YOU CAN SEEK FOR-

  1. Discussion pages-you should be provided with all the discussion papers created by the tutor while explaining things, so that you can pick up the topic again in case you forgot.
  2. Chat rooms with students- student-student interaction including the presence of the teacher, can discuss doubts for more clarification to the topic.
  3. Self-paced courses- should not limit the duration of the course to a very limited time, should be given abundant time to the student to complete the course. Advantageous for both intelligent student and average or weak students.
  4. Enables mobile learning-so that can continue with the learning process anytime and anywhere.
  5. Live feedback-student’s satisfaction as well as motivation to the teachers. Also teachers can improve every day.
  6. Provides demo classes-easy for course selection and judgement by the students.

Emotional quotient

When we are young we live our lives to the fullest, every emotion we have, every feeling we feel, is in its utmost intensity. we are still trying to figure out the nature of our emotions . in this process we often seem to give more focus on happiness. when every other emotion is being envied upon and tried to be avoided, sadness in particular. We develop our personality over experiences and these experiences should be most be taken care by parents. As we grow up we realize that every emotion is very well important for the overall survival of being. we should let every emotion take over when time comes but we must also be careful that we do not give the complete authority of control of our actions to any emotion in particular. Complete domination of joy can make us escape reality, complete takeover of sadness may make us loose meaning in lives, complete charge of anger can make us take wrong decisions, complete charge of disgust may make us loose our self love, complete takeover of fear may make us loose confidence and so on. While making any action we must expand our controller setup and make every emotion to contribute to make a well balanced output.

 People say you shouldn’t be emotion driven and take actions based on your emotions, after this movie I can say that you can take actions driven by emotions only if you can control your emotion and let each emotion give their valuable suggestion to you so you can take calculated actions calculated risks minimize risk.

Emotions are very  difficult to understand but what is clearly understood is that  emotions are very complex, and its so much complex that it actually knows what needs to be done. Unconscious emotions can sometimes be better than hours of scrutinized thought. because biology had it all figured out even before we knew there was something like this existed.

              End conclusion derived can be that to lead  a happy life emotions must be understood when they arise, then they need to be anylised and then Actions can be taken on a mixture of all the emotions.

OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS- every memory has the power of manifesting various emotions an memory can be happy at some point and same can get sad at some point based on the perception we have these make various emotions take over, also each individual has the power to take an memory/thought/experience and make themselves set any mood as they want and take advantage of that mood to take further steps.

  • We must keep the curious imagineative part of ourselves alive because these areas of personality which has the power to bring joy to our lives. in various circumstances we see that part of our personality dying and choose to not to do anything about it. This happens when sadness takes over. We must recognise it and get a well mix of emotions to plan out and trake actions to fix it.

INSIDE OUT IS A FABULOUS MOVIE AND IT SHOULD BE SHOWN TO EVERY PARENT AS WELL AS EVERY KID.        IT UNLEASHES SOME OF THE DEEPEST SECRETS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND GROWTH

WHAT IS OUR PLACE IN UNIVERSE?

Humanity has always been fascinated by looking at the stars and thinking about their place in the universe throught history there have been many philosphers who gave their opinion to this answer. Initially humanity considered itself at the center of universe and thought everything revolved around them. Then some astronomers found out that isn’t the case and earth revolved around sun not other way around. Then People thought ‘ if we aren’t most superior there must be someone who is superior than us’ this gave birth to the concept of God and shaped most of the religions. Now when we have tools capable of retracing history we  see that there wasn’t a superior being as God who created us but actually we are products of evolution. When humanity got this answer instead of getting satisfied it became even more confused and asked more questions like “ so what is purpose of life?” “ why are we here in the first place”, “ is It that life inherently has no meaning and we are result of just a big coincidence?”

These questions are yet to be answered by science, hence here is where philosophy comes in. The fact that humanity don’t have any purpose gave rise to many ideologies, everybody triend to justify the statement in their on way.

Nihilism followers believe that with life there is only suffering and the best use of life will be to end it this philosophy has caused many suicides and has been cause of depression for many people. This philosophical thought is soo strong that popular apps like Instagram/ facebook actually give warning and counselling notifications to people reading these kind of ideologies.

Then there come existentialists who also believe that life inherently has no meaning but the people need to find their own purpose. They don’t believe in conventional thought of Good/bad, right/wrong, and think that one should chase happiness and die.

Both of these philosophies are beautiful and scary at the same time. For me I prefer mix and match of all of the thoughts. I don’t fear god at the same time I refuse to deny its existence. I love life but I am not afraid to die. I will conclude this essay by imbibing one thought in the mind of readers. “ I love life but I am not afraid to die because I have been dead for millions of years before I was born and all of my inconveniences arised after inception of ‘me’

Emergency Provisions

The provisions related to emergency are given in Part XVIII of the Indian Constitution. Article 352 to Article 360 deals with the emergency provisions. An emergency is imposed in the country or a state when law and order go out of control. To prevent the country’s unity, sovereignty, and brotherhood, an emergency may be imposed in difficult times.

There are three kinds of emergency:-

1. National emergency

2. State emergency

3. Financial emergency

HEADINGS:

1. What is National Emergency

2. What is State Emergency

3. What is Financial Emergency

What is National Emergency

National emergency is given under Article 352 of the Constitution of India. The President can declare a national emergency in a situation of war or if the country’s security is at stake and under threat, or armed rebellion. Indian President must be satisfied with the happening of these grounds to impose a national emergency. The President may impose national emergency in the whole of the territory of India or even in any particular territory or state as well. This power was given to the President by the 42nd amendment in 1976.

In India national emergency has been imposed three times:-

1. 1962 Indo-China war

2. 1971 Indo-Pak war

3. 1975 Internal disturbance

By the 44th amendment in 1978, the word ‘internal disturbance’ has been replaced by ‘armed rebellion.’

National Emergency Approval

Before imposing national emergency in the country, it must be approved by both the houses of parliament. After the 44th amendment 1978, The cabinet gives a proposal of emergency in writing to the President. The time duration given for approval is one month. If both the houses of parliament approve the proposal of an emergency, then it is imposed for a period of six months. And this time period can be extended observing the situation in the country. It can be extended after every six months. There is no maximum period or limitation prescribed for the continuation of national emergency. It can be continued for any period of time.

Effects of National Emergency

The emergency in a country affects people on a large scale. The sufferance can not be described in words. It affects the system as a whole.

Some effects of National Emergency are:-

  • The federal structure of the country shifts to the unitary structure. All the powers get vested in the union government.
  • States come under the direct control of centre.
  • The President can also make alterations in financial distribution and allocation.
  • Fundamental rights are suspended in the period of emergency. Article 19 automatically revokes. But Article 20 and 21 are never revoked.
  • During the period of emergency, no elections take place.

What is State Emergency

State emergency is also known as constitutional emergency or President’s rule. When the emergency is imposed in a particular state, it is said as a state emergency under Article 356 of the Constitution of India. When the constitutional machinery of a state fails, and it is seen that the government is unable to run a state constitutionally or the state is not obeying the directions given by the union government for law and order, then the President has to impose President’s rule.

State Emergency Approval

When the President proclaims national emergency in a state, both the houses of parliament have to give approval for it within two months from the date of the issue of the proclamation. The period of emergency continues for six months after the proclamation, and it may be extended up to three years and not beyond that. But the same 44th amendment 1978 laid down two conditions that need to be satisfied if the state emergency had to be continued or operated beyond one year:-

  • The national emergency must be in operation in India. It may be imposed in the whole of the territory of India or any part of the state.
  • If the report of election commission suggests that elections in that state assembly are not possible.

Sarkaria Commission Report on State Emergency

The report contained some suggestions in regard to the imposition of President’s rule in a state:-

  • The report opined that Article 356, which deals with state emergency, must be used as a weapon of last resort.
  • The President imposes the state emergency on the report of the governor.
  • In the breakdown of government, it is the role of the governor to make a healthy government. Every possibility must be looked out for majority support of the government in assembly elections.
  • Before imposing an emergency, an alert or warning must be given to the government to settle the matter amicably.
  • It was said that Article 356 must be used in rare situations and circumstances. It cannot be a handy tool to maintain peace and order.

Case Law

S. R. Bommai vs. Union of India, 1994

“In this case, the Supreme Court said that President’s rule under Article 356 is subject to judicial review. It is open to the court for enquiring about the grounds for imposing President’s rule. By putting state emergency under the eye of #judicial review, the court has tried to prevent arbitrariness and monotonous rule.”

Effects of President’s Rule

When the President’s rule is in operation in a state, it temporarily changes the structure of a state. The effects that take place are:-

1. All the powers of the state get vested in the President. He becomes a deciding authority in that state.

2. The parliament takes all the decisions instead of the state assembly and state council.

3. It does not affect the fundamental rights of a person.

4. The President of India makes all the laws for that state until the continuation of the emergency.

What is Financial Emergency

Financial emergency is given under Article 360 of the Indian Constitution. When the President feels that there is a threat or danger to the country’s financial stability, he can impose a financial emergency.

Approval of Financial Emergency

After the proclamation of the President, within the period of two months, both the houses of parliament must approve the emergency. There is no maximum limit for the operation of financial emergency in the country. It can be continued until the President desires it to be in operation, looking at the financial situation of the country.

Effects of Financial Emergency

The consequences of financial emergency are:-

  • All the finance matters come under the direct control of the central government.
  • The President of India may issue directions in the reduction of salaries of government employees.
  • All the bills related to finance shall be reserved for future consideration, like money bills, financial bills, etc.

In India, a financial emergency has never been imposed so far. Though there have been many phases when the economic situation of the country was not so good. But a financial emergency has never been imposed. 

Learn to Say No

We all have that kind of behaviour where we put others first than ourselves. Our priority changes with people who are more important to us. But don’t you think keeping oneself to backseat every time will not help in a long run process. We have to prioritise thing for our own self too. Sometimes the most empowering decision is also the most painful decision.

Pleasing people attitude is be rooted in us since childhood. We might have been raised to be a good girl or boy, praised for being “mummy’s little helper”, or we might not have been given enough attention, and so sought it by pleasing others, even at the expense of ourselves.

Sometimes we just get so used to it that we are not answerable to our own-self what we want? Let us thing why we can’t say a simple word ‘no’ is it so hard to express it is a word with only two alphabets easy and too simple to understand but then to we just can’t speak it as we have a fear of rejection, we have a feeling that they will be disappointed by us, angry, hurt their feeling, unkind to them or rude.

We have been to many coffee dates with a person which we are not that interested in but, we just said yes as we can’t say no keeping our time, money, feelings on stake.

Learning how to cure the ‘people pleasing’ urge is a day to day process. But it is important to do it, to put boundaries and set limits, so you don’t end up living in other’s terms, but in yours.

How to set boundaries step by step

  • Realize the importance of boundaries

The first step of this journey is to realize how having no-boundaries affects our daily life and personality. Pleasing people all the time, putting them before our health and our life is the main reason of our exhaustion, stress and lack of self-esteem.

  • Be prepared

You will meet people who will try to break your boundaries but you have to mentally, physically prepared for such situation. You will have to be strong and confident on your values.

  • No guilt or fear

We mostly forget that the first person’s feeling we have to take care for is our own self and that the fear of losing others will make us lose ourselves.

  • No justification

Justifying their negative attitude towards you, will keep you ‘under their spill’. Try to be rational about this. If a friend keeps putting you down, keep blaming you for their own failures, is he/she really a friend? We should draw the line between being a good friend, and letting toxic people run your life.

  • Change your behaviour

You cannot change others, but you can change your behaviour towards them to step on all your values, they continue to do so. But when you take charge and stop them from doing it, there’s not much choices for them.

  • Make your statement and a request

After you have come to the conclusion, make sure to calmly talk to the person that made you feel uncomfortable. Take this step when you are calm enough to be rational, not when you are filled with anger and pain.

  • State the consequences

If the other person is unable to meet your request the next step is to take care of your-self. You now let the other person know how you are going to deal with the situation. It’s important to plan how you are going to behave before you make your boundary request. That’s means that if they don’t accept your terms, you have thought of some consequences on their relationship with you.

  • Mean it

If there is no persistence then the boundary doesn’t even exist. Remind yourself of the importance of your physical, mental and emotional health and how putting these boundaries is helping you protect them.

Conclusion

Choosing yourself doesn’t always feel good yet you must learn to find the wisdom that lies within the ache. The ache is where you meet your power.

Glory or Suffering?

WAR is the fight or conflict between two countries ,religion ,caste ,greed ,power the list goes on
and on .The word WAR itself says the fight to get something or which can not be obtained by
normal means . In the 21st century the war is for water ,food and jammu kashmir.
I will elaborate the war which is normalised in society with the help of the past example of
American civil war. Everyone is little bit familiar with what is american civil war .The civil war is
the central event recorded in the american history .The revolution of 1776-1783 created the
United States civil war of 1861-1865 which will determine what kind of nation it would be. The
civil war was fought between northern united states and southern united states .The primary
reason for the war was long standing controversy over the enslavement of black people .The
main reason was the colour (black and white)which lead to the biggest in the american history.
War broke out in april 1861 when the american forces attacked fort sumter in south carolina
shortly after Abraham lincoin had inaugurated as the new president of the United states.
There was a great loss of about 620,000to 750,000 lives which is more than a u.s.military
deaths in all other wars .So the war leads the great loss to the environment ,family,extreme
destruction to the material and lives of the people.This is not only one war there had been lot of
wars for other reason also as which had took place in past as INDO PAKISTHAN WAR, SINO
INDIAN WAR,KARGIL WAR ,BATTLE OF PLASSEY,THIRD BATTLE OF PANIPAT etc.
If we go for the overview of all the war fought it shows that either the war was for land
,empire,money,strength,or revenge.War is not only between the two parties it is between the
societies ,it’s between the mentality. War is evil but not all the time as for example in speaking
about the war as the conflict of interest in certain situation war is necessary which turns out into
a thing to be proud of as the attack of indian force over the pakistan in november 2018 where
74 terrorist were killed by the Indian para commando ,yes it was a revenge of india but its good
in the sense that they entered in their land and destroyed the whole terrorist cell of about the
whole village it was all under the president’s order and all came back safely and had dinner
with the president that shows the strength and power id Indian army and forces to their enemies
.If i go with the socio economical sense point of view which states that war is motive power of
progress and effective method of keeping the situation stable.
Entering into the question of why it is normalised nowadays as ,recalling the past history we
come to this conclusion that when any country or the normal person has raised their voice
leading to war they have got it . So war is the best medium to get thing done or to take
something forcefully by the mean of shedding blood , money and great loss to the environment .