Make in India Movement

Make in India is a major national programme of the Government of India designed to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development, protect intellectual property and build best in class manufacturing infrastructure in the country. The primary objective of this initiative is to attract investments from across the globe and strengthen India’s manufacturing sector. It is being led by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. The Make in India programme is very important for the economic growth of India as it aims at utilising the existing Indian talent base, creating additional employment opportunities and empowering secondary and tertiary sector. The programme also aims at improving India’s rank on the Ease of Doing Business index by eliminating the unnecessary laws and regulations, making bureaucratic processes easier, making the government more transparent, responsive and accountable.

It targets 25 sectors of the economy which range from automobile to Information Technology (IT) & Business Process Management (BPM)

It also seeks to facilitate job creation, foster innovation, enhance skill development and protect intellectual property. The logo of ‘Make in India’ – a lion made of gear wheels – itself reflects the integral role of manufacturing in government’s vision and national development. The initiative is built on four pillars which are as follows:

  1. New Processes: The government is introducing several reforms to create possibilities for getting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and foster business partnerships. Some initiatives have already been undertaken to alleviate the business environment from outdated policies and regulations. This reform is also aligned with parameters of World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business’ index to improve India’s ranking on it.
  2. New Infrastructure: Infrastructure is integral to the growth of any industry. The government intends to develop industrial corridors and build smart cities with state-of-the-art technology and high-speed communication. Innovation and research activities are supported by a fast-paced registration system and improved infrastructure for Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) registrations. Along with the development of infrastructure, the training for the skilled workforce for the sectors is also being addressed.
  3. New Sectors: ‘Make in India’ has identified 25 sectors to promote with the detailed information being shared through an interactive web-portal.  The Government has allowed 100% FDI in Railway and removed restrictions in Construction. It has also recently increased the cap of FDI to 100% in Defense and Pharmaceutical.
  4. New Mindset: Government in India has always been seen as a regulator and not a facilitator. This initiative intends to change this by bringing a paradigm shift in the way Government interacts with various industries. It will focus on acting as a partner in the economic development of the country alongside the corporate sector.

Since the launch of Make in India in September 2014, FDI inflows of USD 77 billion including a equity inflows of USD 56 billion has been received for the period October 2014 to March 2016. This represents about a 44% increase in FDI Equity inflows over the same corresponding period.

‘Zero defect zero effect’ is a key phrase which has come to be associated with the Make in India campaign. In the words of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, “Let’s think about making our product which has ‘zero defect’… and ‘zero effect’ so that the manufacturing does not have an adverse effect on our environment”. Thus, sustainable development in the country is being made possible by imposing high-quality manufacturing standards while minimising environmental and ecological impact.

“Come make in India. Sell anywhere, [but] make in India.” Prime Minister Narendra Modi said while introducing his vision to the public. And it seems that the world is more than ready to embrace this vision, which is already set on a path to become a reality.

W.C.C vs T.C.

The expression “office wrongdoing”, carefully, has no legitimate noteworthiness. Notwithstanding, it was authored and advocated by Edwin H. Sutherland, an American humanist, in his exemplary paper “White Collar Criminality” somewhere in the range of sixty five years back. In the paper he characterized this wrongdoing as “one submitted by an individual of decency and high economic wellbeing throughout his occupation”. By such definition Sutherland would have liked to bring up shortcomings in the regular wrongdoing hypothesis by bringing into sharp center the sociological contrasts that existed between customary violations, for example, murder, assault and burglary where the violations were characterized without reference to the economic wellbeing or control of the wrongdoer, and different violations, for example, misappropriation, misrepresentation, antitrust infringement, value fixing via cartels, abuse of open and corporate assets, personal tax avoidance, maltreatment of political and legitimate procedures and far reaching infringement of managerial guidelines, which were all almost continually, as per his investigations, submitted by those with power, high societal position and occupation, for example the decent resident. Sutherland noticed that the individuals who controlled equity saved the wealthy and persuasive by hypothesizing that huge numbers of such offenses were harmless or the casualties didn’t consider themselves to be survivors of wrongdoing; that guilty parties were not so much hoodlums or that the offenses were of a peaceful sort or that a unimportant ramifications of an individual of high status in an illicit demonstration was adequate discipline as such individual would lose his status or his expert permit or benefit. Burden of a prison sentence was uncommon. He additionally observed by and large average camouflage of offenses inside the hierarchical routine prompting challenges in distinguishing the offenses by the people in question and the police. A portion of the fault, he surrendered, most likely, lay in the condition of the law which had until the twentieth century delivered partnerships resistant from criminal obligation.

Sutherland, along these lines, in testing the worldview of customary

guiltiness which accused wrongdoing for the oppressed and the lower class

who were viewed as risky components of society, required that the

general hypothesis of wrongdoing clarify cushy wrongdoing with the goal that the establishment for

decency and equivalent equity for all could result.

Sutherland’s definition, however, had a shortcoming as it was predicated

on the status of the guilty party and not the qualities of the offense. A

rival school of sociologists clamored for another definition that could

underline this last part of the offense. This was important so that

professional wrongdoing would be better comprehended in the entirety of its implications and

endeavors made to control it. In 1970 Edelhertz , a humanist, offered a

redefinition of professional wrongdoing by not recognizing it with any social class.

His definition picked up favor with the US Justice Department and reshaped

thinking regarding the matter. Edelhertz’s definition stressed on “unlawful acts

submitted by non-physical methods and by disguise so as to acquire

cash or property or to acquire business or individual favorable position.”

Significance and helpfulness of this idea is significant as a device to show the persistent move of wrongdoing to the salaried sort among the informed and advantaged social classes on a much bigger scope than previously, particularly in the light of innovatively adroit culprits among these classes. It causes to notice the unmitigated results of such wrongdoing on general society.

Today, office wrongdoing is viewed significantly more as a wide umbrella that means ‘business wrongdoing’, ‘business wrongdoing’ or ‘monetary wrongdoing’, all terms that have increased incredible cash and use at both the national and global level. All things considered, whatever the clear terms that are utilized, the abrogating ideas basic to these offenses are extortion, cheating, deceptive nature and debasement submitted by specialists, conmen, political or open authorities by both complex and rough techniques.

For accommodation of conversation, professional wrongdoing portrayed by its different names has been extensively partitioned into two classes by the sociologists Appelbaurn and Chambliss , to be specific:

(a) word related wrongdoing

(b) corporate or hierarchical wrongdoing.

(an) Occupational wrongdoing is a greater amount of a ‘specially appointed’ nature and is submitted by a wrongdoer in his occupation or exploiting his occupation to advance his private, narrow minded interests. In such a wrongdoing, the guilty party rarely needs to confront his casualty and the normal offense would cover demonstrations of insider exchanging, debasement, changing of records by bookkeepers, cheating by proficient men, undermining charges, submitting Visa fakes and maltreatment of trust by the individuals who have authority over others’ properties.

(b) Corporate or authoritative wrongdoing is submitted by corporate work force to profit their organization as opposed to themselves and spreads a plenty of unlawful acts and bad behaviors, for example, value fixing, disregarding antitrust laws, creating poor or sub-par products, imperiling the earth through contamination and non-recognition of administrative industry guidelines, taking part in bogus and deceiving portrayals and the expressing of bogus loads. This class of wrongdoing has been depicted by Edelhertz as the “most irksome” everything being equal. These kinds of wrongdoing are about consistently challenged. Once more, the buyer showcase during the 1990s in the our nation has added new classes of wrongdoing to the above with the right now progressing divulgences of enormous scope trickery rehearses by business stock investigators and venture investors.

At last, there might be included a class of clerical wrongdoing that stands without anyone else, that is directed as a business by a full-time conman or a gathering of conmen covering a wide range of tricks and cheats.

The Scope of White Collar Crime

As it is critical to recognize two particular types of cushy offense. The primary kind of offense is, traditionally, misrepresentation by some other name. Business fakes absolutely vary in the subtleties of how they are executed, in the complexity of the individuals who execute them and, authentically, in the trouble that examiners have in unwinding them. In any case, at their center, business cheats are the same in kind as any misrepresentation happening in the city. They are called clerical offenses essentially as a result of the financial status of the entertainers and the methods they have decided for perpetrating their criminal offenses – not as a result of anything one of a kind or innately unique in the idea of their lead. Such a professional wrongdoing has been around for quite a while. Fake cubicle wrongdoing is no less genuine today. This sort of barefaced false cubicle wrongdoing is a channel on the economy and a noteworthy concern. At the point when it goes unpunished, regard for the standard of law is decreased.

The second kind of cushy offense is, nonetheless, very extraordinary. It includes arraignments for infringement of decides and guidelines that are a piece of a bigger legal structure. They include infringement of the guidelines of the Companies Act, MRTP Act and different sculptures. Three doctrinal improvements characterize this second sort of cushy offense and separate it from the great cheats First, this kind of cubicle offenses includes the criminalization of direct that, in many examples, isn’t characteristically unfair similarly that misrepresentation and pay off are. Or maybe there is a development in the class of “open government assistance offenses” – a classification originally made with unassuming punishments and now progressively felonized. Second, and of unique hugeness in gauging moral culpability, the rules include offenses where the psychological component (or mens rea prerequisite) is generously decreased, if not wiped out. For instance, we currently rebuff as exacting risk offenses like shame of debatable instruments-regardless of whether done totally coincidentally. Third, this kind of desk offense progressively includes criminal arraignments of administrative officials for, basically, vicarious risk. Subsequently, for this classification of office offenses, the criminal law is progressively being utilized conversely with common cures.

On the off chance that all fixings are same in conventional and clerical violations, at that point for what reason are two considered as various. Is there a dissimilarity in authorization and condemning for cubicle wrongdoings (of the two sorts) and “road” or manual violations in the lawful arrangement of the nation? As such, do judges disregard the rules and decrease the sentences in cushy offenses or are the rules sentences for clerical violations normally forced? The appropriate response is that the courts don’t seem to withdraw from the rules with any more prominent recurrence in office cases than in road wrongdoing cases.

On the off chance that we see the development of both customary and cubicle wrongdoings, at that point we locate that both owe their rise to custom-based law standards and are variation of standards of robbery, misrepresentation and so forth to current financial foundations.

In any case, in the event that we center around the distinctions in the two, at that point they are in particular :-

  1. In hands on wrongdoings casualty is promptly found and is himself mindful that a wrong has been perpetrated against him which isn’t so if there should be an occurrence of cushy violations. Casualties regularly don’t realize that what brought about unexpected accident of market or why that bank or organization shut down out of nowhere. Here the effect might be circuitous to the point that the casualty doesn’t understands the ramifications of a news and is uninformed until certain reveals to him that the connection in news and his misfortune.
  2. Second distinction is because of deciding of Mens rea in the two cases. If there should arise an occurrence of industrial wrongdoing It is seen that mens rea must be there basically though in the event of cubicle wrongdoing it has been that contentions of numerous sociologists that regardless of whether it is demonstrated that there was no mens rea in the event of any clerical violations it must be rebuffed harshly in order to give a sign to such lawbreakers that society has gotten mindful of such violations and harsh move would be made to hold back .

ANXIETY

Tension is an inclination of anxiety, disquiet, or stress that commonly happens without an up and coming danger. It varies from dread, which is the body’s regular reaction to impending peril. Anxiety is a piece of the body’s characteristic response to push, so it tends to be useful now and again, making you more ready and good to go. Uneasiness issues and ordinary sentiments of nervousness are two unique things. A considerable lot of us get restless when confronted with specific circumstances we find upsetting, yet in the event that those emotions don’t die down, the tension could be more interminable. At the point when sentiments of dread or apprehension become over the top, hard to control, or meddle with every day life, a tension issue might be available. Tension issues are among the most widely recognized mental issues in the United States. It’s not unexpected to consider tension in a manner that may obstruct our capacity to conquer it. “The greatest confusion about tension is that it’s to be dreaded and maintained a strategic distance from no matter what,” says Noah Clyman, an authorized clinical social specialist and the overseer of NYC Cognitive Therapy, a private psychotherapy practice in New York City.

Your heart thumps quick, and your breathing rates up. Your chest may feel tight, and you may begin to perspire. In the event that you’ve at any point felt it, you realize that uneasiness is the same amount of a physical state as a psychological state. That is on the grounds that there’s a solid organic chain response that happens when we experience an upsetting occasion or start to stress over likely stressors or threats later on. Other physical side effects incorporate cerebral pains and sleep deprivation. Mental side effects may incorporate inclination fretful or tense, having a sentiment of fear, or encountering ruminative or fanatical contemplations. Probably the most widely recognized indications of tension issues include: Sentiments of anxiety Envisioning the most noticeably terrible Crabbiness Quakes or jerks Visit pee or the runs Queasiness or steamed stomach.

At the point when the side effects of uneasiness and the related practices are detrimentally affecting your life and everyday working, it’s critical to find support. Suma Chand, PhD, the overseer of the psychological conduct treatment program in the branch of psychiatry and social neuroscience at St. Louis University School of Medicine in Missouri, says an individual who has alarm issue is “very avoidant of numerous circumstances that could trigger [their] alarm indications” and the frenzy issue is affecting their capacity to go to work routinely, go out to shop, go to chapel, and so forth. The capacity to work while in these circumstances is adversely affected also. In case you’re keeping away from circumstances that trigger your uneasiness or you experience huge distress and can’t work viably when you’re in those circumstances, it’s important to look for treatment.

Types of Cyber-bullying

Going ahead of my earlier post in this I will tell about the various types of Cyber-bullying. First I tell about different types of bullying:-

Physical bullying:-  includes hitting, kicking, or pushing you (or even just threatening to do so), as well as stealing, hiding, or ruining your things, and hazing, harassment, or humiliation.

Verbal bullying:- It includes name-calling, teasing, taunting, insulting, or otherwise verbally abusing you.

Relationship bullying:- It generally includes refusing to talk to you, excluding you from groups or activities, spreading lies or rumors about you, making you do things you don’t want to do. Boys frequently bully using physical threats and actions, while girls are more likely to engage in verbal or relationship bullying. But no type of bullying should ever be tolerated.

Now the Cyber Bullying is classified as

Harassment

It is most common to the way of online Bullying. It includes text wars, posting rumours or embarrassing message which cause emotional distress and public shaming.

Doxing

publishings revealing personal information about an individual online, for purposes of humiliating, defaming, or harassing the victim

Impersonation

It about creating fake accounts or gaining access to a person’s real social media accounts and posting things to damage the victim’s reputation.

Cyber stalking

Tracking and monitoring a person’s online activity, and using the internet to stalk or harass an individual.

These are common types of the Cyber Bullying. All students and teenager must be taught about the Cyber Bullying in its school education. Person must be aware about the Cyber Bullying.

Thanks

Kedarnath Floods: A dreadful night which no one can forget

Nature is furious and so is when we don’t respect nature. When nature’s fury arrives, nobody can fight that fury. That’s why it’s said that if we don’t respect and protect our environment or nature, nature will surely destroy us. That’s what nature did when the floods struck the hills of Uttarakhand, India in the year 2013. The devastating few days were one of the worst days in Indian history. The pilgrims who went on a pilgrimage in the hills of Uttarakhand in Kedarnath never thought they would face such a situation. Around 4000 people still after 7 years of that disaster are missing, all presumed dead by the authorities.

With nature’s fury hitting the holy place of Kedarnath, many people didn’t know what they were about to face. Some people who had gone for vacations with their families because of the summer breaks of their children never thought that he might have to face such a tragedy. The scenes their as described by the survivors weren’t at all great. The survivors claimed that the scenes at Kedarnath were really bad and horrific. Bodies were lying everywhere. Water had swept everyone away. The areas below the Kedarnath valley, where tourists usually would take rest with small hotels and lodges was fully washed away. If people before hadn’t seen that place, they wouldn’t have even known that the area contained shops and hotels. Everything was swept away, everything means everything.

The survivors claimed that water was so fierce and powerful that it even came up to the hills which they were climbing up for survival. Landslides were happening so frequently those 3 days that few people even lost their lives trying to climb up the hills and survive. The rescue operations started but with the area being at a very high altitude, helicopters as well as the whole operation was halted many times. Many rescue officers lost their lives while rescuing people. This level of devastation and destruction was never ever seen or the people who went to worship would have thought that they will face such a situation.

Eye witnesses claim how few priests as well as people went indoor in the Kedarnath temple when it started raining heavily and within a few minutes water thrashed into the temple sweeping away the door and many people inside the temple were swept away by the force of water. The destruction was for everyone to see. The damage in those 3 days was for everyone to see. But why did that destruction happen? Because of the fact how people have destroyed nature. We always destroy and play with nature as if it is for granted. But when nature takes matters in its own hands, then common people suffer.

In the end I would only suggest the people of not only this country, but the whole world that these disasters will keep on coming and destroying people and property unless we take a major step of protecting the nature. A major step to make sure that environment isn’t destroyed and is taken as a part of our human family. Don’t destroy mother nature, because when mother nature would strike, nobody would be able to survive, nobody means nobody.

Human rights begin with children rights

Human rights begin with children rights. There is no trust more sacred than the one the world holds with children. There is no duty more important than ensuring that their rights are respected, that their welfare is protected, that their lives are free from fear and want and that they grow up in peace. It is a call to all people to respect human rights of children and to reaffirm their commitment to children.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 (CRC), represents a turning point in the international movement on behalf of child rights. This comprehensive document contains a set of universal legal standards or norms for the protection and well-being of children. Children have a right to be provided with certain services ranging from a name and nationality to health care and education. They have a right to be protected from certain acts, such as torture, exploitation, abuse, arbitrary detention and unwarranted removal from parental care, and children have the right to participate in the decisions affecting their lives.

India has the largest child population in the world. Children under the age of 18 years constitute 41 % of the total population of the country. India’s approach to protection and promotion of human rights of children derives from the Constitution of India, which provides for affirmative action in favour of children. It directs the state to ensure that children are not abused and are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner in conditions of freedom and dignity. India ratified the CRC in 1992 and enacted various laws in conformity of the CRC for the protection of children. In this paper a sincere attempt is made to examine and assess the implementation of the CRC in Indian legal system.

Human rights

Human rights begin with children rights. There is no trust more sacred than the one the world holds with children. There is no duty more important than ensuring that their rights are respected, that their welfare is protected, that their lives are free from fear and want and that they grow up in peace. It is a call to all people to respect human rights of children and to reaffirm their commitment to children.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 (CRC), represents a turning point in the international movement on behalf of child rights. This comprehensive document contains a set of universal legal standards or norms for the protection and well-being of children. Children have a right to be provided with certain services ranging from a name and nationality to health care and education. They have a right to be protected from certain acts, such as torture, exploitation, abuse, arbitrary detention and unwarranted removal from parental care, and children have the right to participate in the decisions affecting their lives. India has the largest child population in the world. Children under the age of 18 years constitute 41 % of the total population of the country. India’s approach to protection and promotion of human rights of children derives from the Constitution of India, which provides for affirmative action in favour of children. It directs the state to ensure that children are not abused and are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner in conditions of freedom and dignity. India ratified the CRC in 1992 and enacted various laws in conformity of the CRC for the protection of children. In this paper a sincere attempt is made to examine and assess the implementation of the CRC in Indian legal system.

GST – Section 7 Definition of Supply

The economic sector includes many taxed supplies just as GST. There are numerous vulnerabilities and ambiguities emerging out of the definition of a “supply” in the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Regulations 1999. The definition of supply is given in GST, Section 7 Which states that the expression of supply includes all forms of supply of goods abd services, it also includes sale, transfer, barter, exchange, license, giving goods on rent, lease or demolition of anything or agreed to be mad for consideration by any individual who is in the process of business, section 7 (b) also includes that supply of import service in return of consideration whether or not in the course of the business is a legit supply.
Definition of GST- Section 7 in Brief Section 7: Defines the term Supply in GST act.  Section 7 (1) (a): The following clause and sub-clause Defines if anything such ad goods or services are transfer for consideration in the due process of the business.  Section 7 (1) (b): The following sub-clause means that any services which includes importing anything ay it be goods or services for consideration it will be defined as supply whether or not it is in the due process of the business.  Section 7 (1) (c): The following sub-clause means the pursuit stated in schedule 1 are defined as supplies if done or made without consideration.  Schedule 1: The Following pursuit are to be treated under Schedule 1 as supplies without consideration. 1. Permanent transfer or scrapping of business assets where input tax credit has been benefited on such assets, such assets with or without consideration are to listed as supplies under Schedule 1. 2. Supply of either goods or services or both between business men or any related individuals as defined in section 25, the whole due process of the same should in the process of business. 3. The gifts which do not exceed fifty thousand rupees in a single financial year by an employer to employee shall not be considered as supply. 4. The supply also includes principal agent relationship in two ways if agent on behalf of the principal receives some goods or the agent on behalf of principal send some goods.

  1. Import of administrations by an available individual from a related individual or from any of his different foundations outside India, in the course or on the other hand promotion of business.  Section 7 (2) (a): The clause 2 of the section 7 nevertheless is related to clause 1 of the section 7. The sub-clause a of the section 7 (2) states that pursuit mentioned in schedule 3 are neither supply of goods nor supply of services.  Schedule 3: the following schedule consist of services such as funeral assistance, employee working for employer and sale of land etc. Schedule 3 contains most of the activities which help our society to develop such as work done in parliament or courts.  Section 7 (2) (b): Pursuit listed in schedule 3 if done by central government or any statuary authority on the recommendation of the government council than the pursuit will be treated as neither supply of goods nor supply of services.  Section 7 (3): The allocation in sub section (1) and (2), the Government may, on the suggestions of the Council, determine, by notification, the exchanges that are to be dealt with shall be treated as:
    a- a supply of goods and not as a supply of services or vice-versa. References:
    http://gstcouncil.gov.in/sites/default/files/CGST.pdf
    http://northexcastudycircle.com/Image/dyks_ppt.pdf
    GST Bare Act

Chief Executive Officer, Zilla Parishad vs. State of Maharashtra and Ors. (22.04.2010 – SC) : MANU/SC/0294/2010

Case Note:

Service – Termination – Validity of – Present appeal filed against order whereby setting aside order of termination of respondent’s services – Held, record shows that pursuant to judgment of High Court, respondent no 2 has already been reinstated in service – Record would also show that respondent no 2 was in service when his services were terminated as his caste certificate was invalidated by Committee – Again he is in service after impugned judgment was rendered and therefore it would be harsh to direct termination of services of respondent no 2 – No post belonging to special backward class category is available with appellant – Therefore interest of justice would be served if Government is directed to create supernumerary post in appellant no 1 institution to accommodate respondent no 2 with liberty to get said caste certificate verified through Caste Scrutiny Committee – Hence, appeal partly allowed and appeal disposed of.

For the foregoing reasons the appeal partly succeeds. The respondent No. 1, i.e., State of Maharashtra, is directed to create a supernumerary post in the appellant No. 1 institution to accommodate the respondent No. 2 as early as possible and preferably within two months from the date of receipt of the writ from this Court. It would be open to the State of Maharashtra and the appellant to get the Caste Certificate dated June 12, 2002, submitted by the respondent No. 2, indicating that he belongs to Special Backward Class, verified from the Caste Scrutiny Committee. If the Caste Scrutiny Committee comes to the conclusion that the Caste Certificate submitted by the respondent No. 2 is valid, he would be continued in service and granted all benefits except back wages from February 6, 2002 to the date of his reinstatement in service pursuant to the impugned judgment. If the claim made by the respondent No. 2 that he belongs to Special Backward Class is not upheld by the Caste Scrutiny Committee, the appellant would be entitled to take appropriate action against him in accordance with law.

History of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897


The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 carries a colonial baggage. It was introduced during a time when Colonial India witnessed over 10 million deaths due to the disease that had its birth in Hong Kong.3 Western medicine proved to be largely inefficient against the Bubonic Plague of 1896. The neglect of the Colonial Government cost them hundreds of lives each day. The Plague’s mortality rate of 60 percent made it obligatory for the Government to not only find a cure, but also control the spread of the disease. Looking at the magnitude of damage, a Plague Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Prof. T.R. Frasor, Professor of Materia Medica at the University of Edinburgh.4 They made a report that documented the effect of the disease and the means to curtail transmission. The report concluded that the disease was highly contagious and recognized human transmission as a means of spread. The commission recommended necessary preventive measures to disinfect and evacuate infected places, to put a control over mass transit, and to improve sanitary conditions. The commission also suggested strengthening of public health services and development of laboratories.5 It was John Woodburn who first introduced the Epidemic Diseases Bill to the Governor General and the Council. 6 The Governor and the Council hastily passed the bill in February 1897 to have better control over the situation. The executive of the presidency towns had discretion to adopt any measures that could aid in limiting the transmission. The extraordinary nature of the act was considered well suited to the extraordinary situation at hand. Various researches were conducted, Plague Research Committees were formed. Their findings showed that the chief cause of the spread was lack of hygiene and poor sanitation across the country. Plague Research Laboratory was also set up in Bombay, to find a vaccine for the plague.