According to Article 53, all the executive powers of the union are vested in the President. The executive powers of the President are multidimensional in character and it includes the powers of the nature of: Administrative powers Legislative powers Pardoning powers Military powers Diplomatic powers Miscellaneous powers Although these powers are classified into many groups,Continue reading “POWERS OF PRESIDENT”


The term secular was not included in the original constitution. But, the spirit of secularism was ever found in the constitution. The Preamble declares that the constitution secures ‘to all citizens liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship’. The 42 Amendment Act, 1976 inserted the term ‘secular’ in the Preamble. Secularism: Western View TheContinue reading “SECULARISM”


‘Parliamentary democracy, democratic form of government in which the party (or a coalition of parties) with the greatest representation in the Parliament (legislature) forms the government, its leader becoming Prime Minister. Executive functions are exercised by members of the Parliament appointed by the Prime Minister to the cabinet. The parties in the minority serve inContinue reading “PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY”


Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 speak about “Restitution of conjugal rights– When either the husband or the wife has, without reasonable excuse, withdrawn from the society of the other, the aggrieved party may apply, by petition to the district court, for restitution of conjugal rights and the court, on being satisfied ofContinue reading “RESTITUTION OF CONJUGAL RIGHTS”

Schools of Hindu Law

There are two main schools of Hindu Law, the Mitakshara and the Dayabhaga. The Mitakshara (literally means “a concise work”) is a running commentary on the code of Yajnavalkya. It has been written by Vijnaneshwar (11th century) and prevails in all parts of India, except in Bengal. The Dayabhaga School, which is followed mainly inContinue reading “Schools of Hindu Law”