Organized group of citizens who form a unit , sharing similar political views, and who try to control the government are political parties. Indian political history dates back to the pre-independence times. People have a right to form their own political party and they usually work for the common interest of the nation. There are three types of political systems basically they are:-
● One party political system:- Here there is only one political party in place, and they elect their leaders, from this party only. Example:- Russia, China etc
● Two party political system:- Here there consist of two political parties, who compete to run the government. Example:- USA, Canada etc.
● Multiple party political system:- Here there can be any number of political parties in place. Example:- India, Pakistan etc.
There are about seven recognised parties as of today, they are:-
● Bharatiya Janata Party (1980)
● Indian National Congress (1885)
● Communist Party of India (Marxist) (1964)
● Communist Party of India (1925)
● National Congress Party (1999)
● All India Trinamool Congress (1998)
Pre-independence era political parties:-
● Muslim League
● Shiromani akali dal
● Swaraj Party
● Communist Party of India
● Dravidar Kazhagam
● National Conference
● All India forward bloc
Advantages of having a multi political party system:-
● India is a democratic country, and every citizen has a right to form, or be a part of a political party.
● It brings about transparency in the election process , though there still exists foul play in the election process.
● The political parties are held accountable to the needs of, common public and their problems.
● India , one of the most diverse countries in the world, is best suited with a multi political party system. This way, all the sections of the society are given recognition and their voices are heard.
● This system negates the single dictatorship of one political party. There is a healthy competition among the parties.
Disadvantages of having a multi political party system:-
● Due to many parties in place, there might be political instability in the country.
● There is a lot of corruption seen today because of a number of parties existing.
● To implement a policy or a decision, the government will take a very long time, due to the opinion and disagreements among the various political parties.
● The regional parties work for just one particular part of a society, hence the other communities can go unheard.
● Most of the political parties can work for the interest of certain religions, thereby creating religious issues in the country.
There are negatives and positives with the multi political party system, but it surely does more good to our country, and India with its huge population and diverse culture, is best suited with this type of a political system. The only major issue we all have to fear is the threat to our unity and security of our country. Every system has its own loopholes, no government in this world has ever achieved perfection, as long as people are different, there will be differences in their viewpoints as well. The only thing that can make us better, is the improvement seen in the country and its political parties.